Acne is a disease that occurs in the skin that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. This blockage that occurs in the skin can cause blackheads or pimples. Acne most usually occurs in children who enter adolescence or children who are in puberty, however, acne can affect people of all ages (

Parts of the body that are often overgrown with acne, especially on the face, shoulders, upper arms, chest and back. When it appears on the face, this acne not only causes discomfort, but can also reduce self-confidence. In the wrong treatment, acne can even make the face dull and trigger pockmarks.

Acne Causes

As explained in the above definition, acne occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. These oil glands are near the surface of your skin. These glands attach to hair follicles, which are tiny holes in your skin where hair grows.

The oil glands produce an oily substance called sebum which lubricates the hair and skin so that the skin does not become dry.

Under certain conditions and situations, the oil glands produce too much sebum. Excess sebum mixes with dead skin cells and the two substances clog the follicles, causing acne.

If the hair follicle is blocked close to the surface of the skin, it protrudes, creating a whitehead. In addition, clogged hair follicles can open up to the skin and develop blackheads.

Usually, harmless bacteria that live on the skin can contaminate and infect clogged follicles, causing papules, pustules, nodules, or cysts.

However, in general, the main causes of acne consist of four things, namely:

  • The amount of dead skin that clogs the pores of the pilosebaceous glands.
  • Excessive production of acne oil (sebum). Growth of Propionibacterium acnes bacteria.
  • The inflammatory process is a reaction to bacteria or germs that appear on the face and the products produced by these bacteria or germs.

“A good doctor certainly understands the process or mechanism of acne in his patient,”

Acne complications

It should be understood that acne is chronic, chronic, and recurring, especially in adolescents or young adults.
More than 85% of teens have acne, but it’s not necessarily the same cause.
Therefore, there is no instant cure for acne. A teenager is an individual who is unstable and easily influenced by others.

Scarring or acne scars that are often called bopeng are common acne complications. Although all types of acne can cause pockets, but the most frequently left marks are acne forms of nodules and cysts. In addition, Banqueng can also arise due to solving acne intentionally.

There are 3 types of scar tissue in acne cases. First, the grated tissue is a small and deep hole in the surface of the skin, as stabbed with a needle (Ice Pick Scars). Secondly, scarring is formed below the surface of the skin, so that it makes the skin uneven (rolling scars). Third, grated tissue is oval and resembles the crater (Boxcar Scars).

To remove acne scars can only be done with cosmetic surgery, including:


Dermabrasion is done by lifting the outer layer of the skin using a laser or a special wire brush. Usually the patient’s skin will be reddish and hurt for several months after undergoing this procedure, before the results are visible.

Laser Therapy

This procedure can be used to treat light and medium acne scars. Laser treatment is divided into two, namely ablative and non-infected laser treatment.

In the ablative procedure, the laser is used to lift small parts of the skin around the scar, to produce new skin cells. Whereas in non-reglative procedures, lasers are used to stimulate the growth of new skin proteins or collagen, which will help improve the appearance and damage due to scars.


In this procedure, the doctor will separate the outer layer of the skin from the scar tissue below it. This separation will make blood clot in the area and form connective tissue. This connective tissue will flatten the scar tissue with the skin surface. To get more perfect results, the doctor will usually run laser therapy or dermabrasion after the subcision procedure.

Technique Punch

Furthermore, there are acne recovery techniques called Punch Technique. Usually, this technique is used to handle grated tissue type Ice Pick and Boxcar. There are three types of punch technique, namely:

  • Punch Elevation. Done by removing the base of scar tissue through surgery, and leaving the edges of the scar. After that, the base was put together with the edge of the scar, then pulled or was lifted so that it was parallel to the surface of the skin.
  • Excision punch. This technique is used to handle Ice Pick the way is to lift acne scars, and close the remaining wounds. When the scars heal, the skin area dissected will look smoother and flat.
  • Punch grafting. Used to treat deep Ice Pick, in the same way as Punch Excision. But on this technique, the scar will be patched by taking the skin from other parts of the body (grafted), for example from the ear behind the ear.

In addition to scars, side effects can also appear after using acne drugs. Immediately go to the doctor if side effects appear like:

  • Swelling on the face, eyes, lips, or tongue.
  • Inflammation of the throat and shortness of breath.
  • Fainting.

Acne Symptoms

Acne often appears on the face and shoulders. but sometimes it can also occur on the torso, arms, legs, scalp and buttocks. Skin changes due to acne include:

  • Crusting of skin bumps
  • Cyst
  • Papules (small red bumps)
  • Pustules (small red bumps filled with white or yellow pus)
  • Redness around skin eruptions
  • Scar tissue on the skin
  • Whitehead
  • Blackheads

Types of Acne

There are 6 types of acne that usually attack the body

  1. whiteheads.
  2. Blackheads.
  3. Papules.
  4. Pustules.
  5. Nodules.
  6. Cysts.

Acne Treatment

Treatment that can be done to treat acne must be adjusted to the severity. There are several things that can be done, namely by:

  • Reducing oil production
  • Against bacterial infections
  • Speed ​​up skin cell turnover and reduce inflammation.
  • Medicines containing sulfur, resorcinol or salicylic acid
  • Antibiotics
  • Besides that, you can also use Isotretinoin. However, its use requires supervision from a doctor, because it can cause bad side effects. In addition, pregnant women are not recommended to consume isotretinoin, because it can cause defects in the fetus.

Other actions that can be taken to prevent acne from recurring are:

  • Maintain facial cleanliness. Make sure you clean your face twice a day. Its purpose is to remove dead skin cells and excess oil on the surface of the skin. Remember to always clean your face after wearing cosmetics.
  • Avoid rubbing the face with a cloth or gloves with a rough surface. Gently rub your face with your hands.
  • Use a non-comedogenic moisturizer that doesn’t cause acne. Choose a moisturizer according to your skin type.
  • Choose non-comedogenic cosmetics that do not close the pores on the skin. Thus you will avoid acne problems after using cosmetics.
  • Clean your cosmetic utensils using soap and warm water regularly.
  • Take a shower immediately after doing activities. Sweat and excess oil on the face can trigger acne.
  • Avoid squeezing and holding pimples too often. This can trigger more pimples.

There are 17 ways you can treat acne naturally, namely:

  1. Apply apple cider vinegar.
  2. Eat zinc-rich foods.
  3. Apply a honey and cinnamon mask.
  4. Apply tea tree oil.
  5. Apply green tea.
  6. Apply witch hazel.
  7. Apply aloe vera.
  8. Eat food sources of omega-3 fats.
  9. Follow a low glycemic diet
  10. Reduce or avoid stress.
  11. Exercise regularly
  12. Apply garlic
  13. Use cucumber masks regularly
  14. Use an egg white mask
  15. Apply baking soda
  16. Steam the pimply face
  17. Wash your face with clean water every day

Related posts